Some of the most historically important gemstones have emerged from the soil of India. These include the Koh-I-Noor Diamond and the Taj Mahal Jewels. The gems and jewellery industry occupies an important position in the Indian economy. It is a leading foreign exchange earner, as well as one of the fastest growing industries in the country.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Gemology is an important part of astrology and it has never been mentioned in it that one, who wants good fortune, should give up his efforts and come to depend upon the fortune entirely. Gemologist prescribes him/her to wear a particular stone and the official makes unprecedented progress since then. Isn’t it a miracle? Stones do have a capacity to remove the hurdles caused by faulty positioning of planets in one’s horoscope.
Some tell a story or are believed to have special powers, but all of them share a common beauty. Each gemstone is unique with a special color, birthplace and story. Gems and jewels are basically stones but they are not easily and universally available as ordinary stones are. From time immemorial, stones have been affecting our life either directly or indirectly. Building of temple, idols of the deity, near the railway tracks and the building of our own house we see scores of varied uses of stones. This is a world of stones literally.
Precious stones are defined as visually appealing gemstones created from rocks or minerals. Often used for jewelry and fashion accents All precious stones are translucent and are valued by the richness of their color, except for the diamond, which has a higher value based on being colorless.
Some of the precious Gemstones found are.
1) Manikya (Ruby)
This jewel also belongs to Navratna category. This highly expensive and transparent stone is available in red and pink colours. It is the main stone of the sun. Though found in many countries like Thailand, Sri Lanka and China but the best type of rubies come from Myanmar. In Sanskrit ruby is known as Padmaraag and Kuruvind while in Urdu it is Surkh Yakoot.
2) Moti (Pearl)
Pearls also have an organic origin counted among stones because of their miraculous properties. Now a days culturing of pearls is a popular business. Pearl is worn to please the moon and correct mental disturbances and abdominal diseases. Mostly pearls are in white in colour though shades of yellow, blue, black and pink are also common. Excellent pearls come from Basra, a traditional centre of pearl trade in Iraq. In Sanskrit, pearl is known as Muktak, Muktaa, Mauktik while in Arabian and Urdu it is known as Gauhar.
3) Mungaa (Coral)
Coral is infact fossilized rocks formed from the sedimentation of dead tiny organisms named coral. It is mostly red in colour though white and pink corals are also common. The best type of coral comes from Italy. In Sanskrit. Coral is known as ‘Pravaal’, ‘Vidram’, ‘Angaarak Mani’. In Urdu, it is known as ‘Mirjaan’ or ‘Marjaan’.
4) Panna (Emerald)
This green coloured stone is used to please mercury. It is bright, transparent stone with brilliant green colour and is very expensive. The best grade of emerald comes from South American countries, Columbia and Brazil.
5) Pukhraj (Yellow Sapphire)
This rare, beautiful and expensive jewel is one of the Navratna. The best type of topaz has a brilliant yellow colour like the flowers of mustard or amaltas (Cassia fistula) and is transparent. This stone is worn to please Jupiter. In Sanskrit, topaz is known as Pushparaj, Pushparag, Peet Mani; in Gujarati it is known as Peeluraj. In Arabic and Persian it is Jard Yakoot and Asper.
6) Neelam (Blue Sapphire)
This highly famous stone is composed of aluminum oxide. It is regarded as the most respected as well as the most dangerous stone. Its positive as well as negative effects are manifested from within hours to days. Though found in many countries like USA, Java, Thailand, Australia, Sri Lanka etc. but the sapphire found in Kashmir province of India is the most beautiful and expensive. Sapphire is often compared with notorious anti-biotic penicillin because of its accelerated effects. In Sanskrit it is known as Neel Mani, Indraneel Mani, in Urdu it is known as Yakoob, Kabood. Blue Sapphire is one of the Navratna.
7) Heera (Diamond)
Hardly anybody will be unaware of this famous jewel. This brilliant, attractive and transparent stone has white, blue and reddish hues. It has miraculous. Latent powers which are both constructive as well as destructive. It is the hardest substance known to man. It is a precious stone very dear to Venus.
8) Gomed (Hassonite)
Cinnamon Stone or Hessonite has a characteristic red color, inclining to orange or yellow, much like that of zircon. Hessonite comes chiefly from Sri Lanka and India where it is found generally in placer deposits, though its occurrence in its native matrix is not unknown. It is also found in Brazil and California.
9) Lahsumiya (Cat’s eye)
This stone is available in white, brown, black and green colours and appears like the eyes of a cat. This also belongs to Navratna category and is worn to please the shadow planet Ketu. It has distinct streaks known as cosmic threads that appear to move when the stone is seen from different angles in flood light. In Sanskrit it is known as Vadurya Mani and Vidalaaksh while in Gujarati it is Lassuniyo and in Bangla it is known as Sutra Mani.
10) Phiroza (Turquoise)
Turquoise is among the oldest known gemstones and its popularity has spanned the globe for centuries. It graced the necks of Egyptian Pharaohs and adorned the ceremonial dress of early Native Americans. This beautiful robin’s egg blue gemstone has been attributed with healing powers, promoting the wearer’s status and wealth, protecting from evil and bringing good luck.
11) Chandrakant (Moon stone)
Ancient Romans believed that this shimmering rock was formed from frozen moonlight, giving it the name Moonstone. In colors ranging from colorless to gray, brown, yellow, green, or pink and clarity that goes from transparent to translucent. The best Moonstone has a blue sheen, perfect clarity, and a colorless body color. Found in India and Madagascar, rainbow Moonstone has a variety of colors, from pink to yellow, to peach, purple, and blue.
Peridot is one of the few gemstones that occur in only one color: an olive-green. The intensity and tint of the green, however, depends on the percentage of iron that is contained in the crystal structure, so the color of individual peridot gems can vary from yellow, to olive, to brownish-green. Peridots can be also found in meteorites.
13) Upalak Mani (Opal)
In ancient times, the Opal was known as the Queen of Gems because it encompassed the colors of all other gems. Each Opal is truly one-of-a-kind; as unique as our fingerprints. Some prefer the calming flashes of blues and greens; others love the bright reds and yellows. With its rainbow of colors, as you turn and move the Opal the color plays and shifts, giving you a gem that can be worn with a plethora of ensembles.