Andhra Pradesh State Formation Day
Andhra Pradesh formation day is celebrated on the 1st Nov every year. On 1st Nov 1956, 11 districts in the Telugu-speaking portion of Madras State became the new Andhra State with Kurnool as the capital. The day celebrates the memories of the freedom fighters.
In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually, this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as the Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.
Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and would hold it until 1954. India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.
In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistics and protect the interests of the Andra(Telugu-speaking) people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until his death in 1952. After his death, Andhra attained statehood on 1st November 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.
On 1st November 1956, the States Reorganization Act merged the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Hyderabad state with the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Madras state to form the state of Veshalandhra, which is named Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state.
Andhra Pradesh came into existence on November 1, 1956, when Telangana was merged with Andhra. Undivided Andhra Pradesh continued the celebration of Formation Day on November 1 till 2014 when Telangana was carved out of it as a separate state.
Andhra Pradesh State Formation Day was celebrated on 1st November since then but after the bifurcation of Telangana, the government of Andhra Pradesh decided to celebrate 2nd June the date of bifurcation as its foundation day. There was still confusion as the new government of Andhra Pradesh took oath on June 8th so it should be regarded as its foundation day. After five years Andhra Pradesh government decided to celebrate its foundation day on its original date i.e. 1st November.
Suggested Read: Formation Dates of Indian States
Telangana was for a long time part of the erstwhile Nizam’s princely state of Hyderabad. But in 1956 Telangana region of Hyderabad State was merged with Andhra Pradesh state. From 1956 to 2014, Telangana existed as part of Andhra Pradesh. The state of Andhra Pradesh was bifurcated into two states, Telangana and residuary Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 commonly called Telangana Bill is an Act of the Indian Parliament proclaiming the bifurcation of the Andhra Pradesh state into two states, Telangana and residuary Andhra Pradesh. The Bill was rejected by Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly on January 30, 2014, but was passed in the Lok Sabha and in the Rajya Sabha and got attestation by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee.
Suggested Read: Andhra Pradesh – Culture and Tradition