Languages in India State Wise
India is a diverse country and its diversification is not only in their culture, tradition, lifestyle, food, and dresses but also in their languages. There is a proverb in India “Every two miles the water changes, every four miles the speech.” You will find a different dialect of the language spoken over a certain specific distance.
In India, there are a total of 22 languages which are called the Scheduled Languages of India. The Union of India has two official languages Hindi and English. The Government of India has announced that 22 languages as National Languages. The 22 Scheduled Languages of India are Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Punjabi, Assamese, Maithili, Santali, Kashmiri, Nepali, Sindhi, Konkani, Dogri, Manipuri, Bodo, and Sanskrit.
Every state can have a special language to run as an official language of state government according to the constitution of the Republic of India. For example, Andhra Pradesh state has Telugu language, state Tamil Nadu has Tamil Language, Kerala state has Malayalam, Karnataka state has Kannada, Maharashtra has Marathi, the state of Gujarat has Gujarati, Rajasthan state has Marwari language, state of Telangana has Telugu and Urdu, etc.
1. Assamese – Assamese is the language that is spoken by the people from Assam state which is in North-East India. It is an Indo-Aryan Language.
2. Bengali – Bengali is spoken by the people in the West Bengal state (Eastern India). It is an Indo-Aryan Language.
3. Bodo – Bodo language was recently announced as one of the national languages. Approximately 15 lakhs people speak this language. It belongs to Assam state ( North-East ).
4. Dogri – Dogri is the language spoken by Jammu & Kashmir ( Nothern India ) people. It was also recently announced as one of the National languages by the Indian Constitution.
5. Gujarati – It is an Indo-Aryan Language. The people of Gujarat state ( State of Western India ) speak this language.
6. Hindi – Hindi is the language spoken by most people in India and the second one in the world. Hindi has no separate script. It uses the Sanskrit Devanagari script. It is one of the official languages of The Government of India.
7. Kannada – Kannada is the official Language for the Karnataka state which is in Southern India. It belongs to the Dravidian Language Family. Approximately 4 crore people speak this language.
8. Kashmiri – It is the official language of Jammu & Kashmir state. It is an Indo-Aryan Language.
9. Konkani – Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language. It is the official language for the State of Goa Which is in Western India.
10. Maithili – This language was recently announced as one of the national languages by the Indian Constitution. Approximately 1-3 million people from Bihar which is in Eastern India speak this language.
11. Malayalam – It belongs to Dravidian Language Family, spoken by the people from Kerala state which is in Southern India.
12. Manipuri – Manipuri language is spoken by the people from the state Manipur which belongs to North-East India. Manipuri language belongs to The Tibeto-Burman Language Family.
13. Marathi – It is an Indo-Aryan family language that has no separate script. Marathi uses the Devanagari Script which belongs to Sanskrit. This language is spoken by the people of Maharashtra state, Dadra Nagar Haveli, and Daman Diu.
14. Nepali – Nepali is the language spoken by 30 lakhs people who are living in Sikkim and West Bengal. Both belong to Eastern India.
15. Odiya – Odiya is the official language for the state of Odisha. This state is located in Eastern India. Approximately 3 crore people are speaking this language.
16. Punjabi – It is an Indo-Aryan Language. it is spoken by 3 crore members who belong to the states Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Delhi.
17. Sanskrit – It is the oldest language in the world. It is also called as Mother of all languages. All ancient scriptures were written in this language. It is considered as Devabhasha ( Language of Deities ). It uses the Devanagari script.
18. Santhali – This language is spoken by the people from Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Bihar. It was added as a constitutional language recently.
19. Sindhi – This language is spoken by the people from North-West India. Now, most people are there in Pakistan who speak this language.
20. Tamil – It is considered one of the most ancient and classical Languages. Approximately 5 crore members speak this language. This is the official language of Tamil Nadu state which is in Southern India. It belongs to the Dravidian Language family.
21. Telugu – It is also called ‘Italian of the East, ‘Shuddh Bhasha’. It belongs to the Dravidian Language Family. It is the Offical language of Andhra Pradesh state which is in Southern India. It is also considered as one of the ancient and classical languages.
22. Urdu – Urdu is a second/alternative official language for Telangana state which is in Southern India. It is spoken by 7 crore people approximately all over India. Most of the people from Jammu & Kashmir, Bihar, Telangana speak this language.
There have also been demands to add more languages to this list. They include:
- Indian English
- Indian French
- Garhwali (Pahari)
- Kodava (Coorgi)
- Kumaoni (Pahari)
- Mizo (Lushai)
- Shaurseni (Prakrit)
It’s important to note that, the imposition of larger languages in India has also resulted in the drowning out of many small languages.