Unemployment is one of the major social-economic problem being faced in India. It is a state of being out of work when people are willing to work but are not able to find any suitable work for them.
In today’s world, both educated and uneducated persons are facing the problem of unemployment. There is various type of unemployment in India, like disguised, structural, seasonal, rural and urban unemployment.
Unemployment is a waste of manpower, people desire to work but they don’t have the right skills or proper opportunity, this is called structural unemployment. Disguised employment is when more than required people are employed for the same job. If a part of the labor force is withdrawn, the total output remains the same. In the rural part of India where agriculture is the main occupation, cultivation is not done throughout the year and farmers remain unemployed for a few months. In some type of industries like cold drinks, sugarcane industries, crackers, people get employed only for a particular season and this is called Seasonal unemployment.
But as compared to rural areas people of urban areas are more unemployed, even educated people face unemployment and is very depressing especially for the youth. The socio-economic consequences of unemployment are very serious, it is a waste of manpower and leads to poverty and slow rate of economic growth.
It threatens peace and stability in a country and is the main cause of frustration among educated youth and leads them to engage in anti-social activities like smuggling, drug peddling, etc. An unemployed person is forced to give up all moral values and norms of society.
There are many causes of unemployment and the root cause is over-population. In India, the basic employment is agriculture-based employment about 60-70% of the total population depends on agriculture. Laborers find employment only during sowing and harvesting season and remain without work for the rest of the time.
Another major cause of unemployment is illiteracy and the system of education in India. In India, about 26% population is illiterate but even educated are unemployed today. The system of education should be such that students are provided practical training to work in the future. Vocational training should be provided to them and make them capable of working.
Economic growth in a country generates employment, and India is showing an increase in economic growth but with a large number of the population available, complete removal of unemployment is not possible. For solving the problem of unemployment, the population growth should be checked, the education system should be revised, more importance should be given to vocational and practical training.
Importance should be given to self-employment and loan and training should be provided to people who which to start their own business. Industrialization of the country needs to be done at a large scale.
Government of India have started various rural and urban employment generation programs and schemes to tackle unemployment and generating employment has been a major objective of planning in India. But the rate of population rise in India is far more than the rate by which jobs are growing. To provide employment to 12.8 million young people who enter the labor force every year remains a challenge especially when the majority of them are school dropouts. To make them employable, they should be provided vocational training but we do not have adequate facilities to train so many people.
If there were jobs in tribal areas and other backward rural areas, a lot of problems that India is facing today would disappear. Measures should be taken to reduce seasonal unemployment. Activities allied to agriculture, like dairy farming, horticulture, etc should be developed, this will provide additional employment to agriculture labor force throughout the year.
We need to improve our education system to make people employable, knowledge and training in English will help many people getting jobs. Many jobs should be available in the IT sector, entertainment, aviation, hotel, and hospitality sectors, and job seekers should easily be made aware of the employment opportunities through electronically.
The future of our country lies in the hands of our youth, and we must tackle the problem of unemployment with the utmost care. Their betterment would mean betterment of our country as a whole.