Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Rammohun, Rammohan or Ram Mohan was the founder of Brahmo Samaj. He was born on May 22, 1772, in a village called Radhanagore, Hooghly a district in West Bengal. Rammohan was educated in Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit & Bengali.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was an Indian socio-educational reformer who was also known as ‘Maker of Modern India’ and ‘Father of Modern India’ and ‘Father of the Bengal Renaissance.’
The title ‘Raja’ was given to him by the Mughal Emperor. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first educated Indian to travel to England. He went to England as an ambassador of the Mughal emperor Akbar II. He wanted to combine the righteousness of Western and Indian culture. He was against traditional Hindu practices and echoed his voice against Sati system, polygamy, caste rigidity and child marriage. He put remarkable efforts in the education system of India. To modernize the education system, Raja Ram Mohan Roy established many English schools. He set up the Hindu college at Calcutta in 1822. He assisted Alexander Duff to establish the General Assembly’s Institution. Roy promoted and urged that science, technology, western medicine and English should be taught at Indian schools. To politically educate people, Raja Ram Mohan Roy even published magazines in different languages including English, Hindi, Persian, and Bengali. Noticeable magazines published by him were the Brahmanical Magazine, the Sambad KaumudiandMirat-ul-Akbar.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a great reformer his reforms are contained in the Brahmo Samaj “One God Society“. He believed in Modern Scientific approach and principal of human dignity and social equality.
The Brahmo Samaj which was launched into its eventful career on August 20, 1828, at Kolkatta, it gave a concrete expression to Ram Mohan Roy concept of universal worship purifying Hinduism and preach Monothiesm.
He was considered as the Father of the Indian Renaissance and was a man of versatile genius and was called the Greatest Bengali of all time. He stood for the creative and intellectual process of selecting the best from eastern and western culture.
The basic belief of Brahmo Samaj are.
1. No faith in any scripture as an authority.
2. Denounced Idol worship and polytheism.
3. Discouraged Sati System.
4. Supported Widow Remarriage.
Brahmo Samaj had two divisions
1. Adi Brahmo Samaj
2. Sadharana Brahmo Samaj
The Brahma Samaj played a major role in reforming and modernizing the Indian society, it was instrumental in banning Sati system in 1829, arranging many widow remarriages and spreading western knowledge.
He promoted a rational, ethical, non-authoritarian, this-worldly, and social-reform Hinduism. Brahmo Samaj believes that worship of One Supreme God needs no fixed place or time.